Advanced materials: reversing fate: piezoelectric composite nanoparticles regulate neural plasticity and restore neuronal function

Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease in middle-aged elderly people. The main pathological change is the degeneration death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. Therapeutic solutions include drug therapy gene therapy cell transplantation cell reprogramming so on; there are still great challenges in developing non-invasive simple but effective strategies to restore the function of endogenous dopamine neurons.

electromagnetic fields are an indispensable part of the life system. They affect intracellular communication neuronal activity ion transport thus affecting cell migration proliferation differentiation even reprogramming cells. Piezoelectric nanomaterials can easily respond to external stimuli convert mechanical energy into electrical energy which is a promising tool for remote non-invasive precise neural regulation. Due to its unique energy conversion properties piezoelectric nanomaterials have broad application prospects in biomedicine such as multi-stage carriers in nanodrugs in vivo imaging probes nanoscale transducers to induce cell growth / differentiation. Nanomaterials with higher electric coefficient electromechanical coupling coefficient have high efficiency in electromagnetic field generation. Ultrasound can be used to generate electromagnetic fields through remote control of piezoelectric nanoparticles.

Shen qundong Department of polymer science engineering School of chemistry chemical engineering Nanjing University proposed the use of piezoelectric composite nanoparticles to regulate neural plasticity restore the function of degenerative dopaminergic neurons in vivo. The results show that the carbon shell with specific thickness on the surface of piezoelectric nanocrystals by hydrothermal method has good biocompatibility; its acoustic impedance is close to the biological medium the conduction loss is small the electronic polarization at the interface is enhanced so the core-shell nanoparticles show excellent ultrasonic absorption electromagnetic field generation performance in vivo. Under the ultrasonic pressure the charge separation of piezoelectric nanomaterials leads to the generation of potential. The potential changes periodically with the high frequency ultrasonic the electric stimulation intensity is enough to activate nerve cells.

combine core-shell piezoelectric nanoparticles with remote ultrasound to generate a controllable electric field which can realize remote electrical stimulation at the nano biological interface. Nanoparticles can generate electrical signals to transmit to nerve cells by receiving ultrasonic signals stimulate voltage dependent ion channels in nerve cells cause cell depolarization; at the same time nanoparticles can increase the expression of synaptophysin protein a marker of synaptic plasticity control zebrafish tail movement by regulating calcium influx in neural circuits. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter regulating the central nervous system. Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate limiting enzyme of dopamine synthesis the key enzyme catalyzing the transformation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa. The electric field generated by piezoelectric nanoparticles activated the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase improved the movement disorder of zebrafish. The electromagnetic nanoparticles have good biological safety in brain tissue which provides a new idea for remote treatment of neurodegenerative diseases nerve regeneration.

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