Newly 3000°C Ablative Ceramic Coating Successfully Developed - Multi-boron-containing Single-phase Carbide
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Boron carbide is also known as black Diamond. It has a molecular formula of B4C. The powder is typically grayish. It is one the three hardest materials known (the other two being diamond and cubic boronnitride). It can be found in many industrial applications, including tank armor, body armor, and even some automobiles. It has a Mohs toughness of 9.3. A large number of tests were conducted by the team of Academician Huang Boyun of Central South University’s National Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy to develop a new ceramic coating and composite materials that are resistant to 3000°C ablation. This discovery may pave a way for the development hypersonic cars.
According to Professor Xiong Xiang of the Institute of Powder Metallurgy of Central South University's Institute of Powder Metallurgy (IPM), hypersonic flight is defined as a flight speed that is at least 6120 kilometers per hour, or 5 times faster than the speed of the sound. With such high speeds, a flight from Beijing to New York could be completed in just 2 hours if the key structural elements of the plane can handle severe air friction as well as hot air impacts of 2000-3000 deg. C. . Central South University has developed ceramic composites and coatings for ultra-high temperatures that provide better protection of the above components. The world's very first synthesis of boron carbide single phase ultra-high temperature ceramics, made into coatings, is said to be the work of Central South University. In the current field, new materials are dominated by the study of mixed material systems in binary compound system. The successful application of materials based on quaternary systems in hypersonic will be greatly facilitated by its development.
The novel ceramic coated modified carbon/carbon material is composed by a single-phase carbide of zirconium (quarterary), titanium (quaternary), carbon (carbon) and boron elements. It has a stable carbide-crystalline structure. Infiltration of a multiceramic phase is the main method for obtaining it. The ultra high temperature ceramic combines the high-temperature adaptability of carbides and the anti-oxidation characteristics of borides. This makes the coatings, composites, and other materials exhibit superior ablation and thermal shock resistance. The ceramic oxide can withstand an ultra-high temperature of 3000 degC and has low oxygen diffusion rates, self-healing properties at high temperatures, dense ceramic coatings, and gradient structures. It also exhibits a lower material content than other ceramic systems. Ablation loss rate.
"Because the ultra-high-temperature ceramic combines carbide's high temperature adaptability with boride's anti-oxidation property, the coatings and materials above have superior thermal shock resistance and ablation resistant, which are the keys to hypersonic vehicle. Xiong Xiang said that the promising candidates were for the parts.
Nature Communications published the results of research conducted by the team on 15th June. The State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy of Central South University was the first completion unit of this thesis. Zeng Yi and Professor Xiong Xiang are the first correspondents. First author is the doctor. The University of Manchester (UK), a partner unit of the University of Manchester, UK characterized the material and performed an analysis.
After publication, the article attracted a great deal of interest from the foreign media and academic circles. In the three days immediately following publication, this article was downloaded over 5,000-times, whereas other articles were only downloaded 300 to 900 times. The Daily Mail in Britain, The Economist in the United States and Public Machinery (Russia) have all covered the research. . According to a reviewer at Nature Newsletter, the above research results "will ignite the academic excitement and interest in applying quaternary materials in hypersonic fields, because this material system represents a promising one."
The team began working with Professor Chang Xiang in 2002 with the help of the National 863 and 973, as well as the National Natural Science Foundation. They were led by a Yangtze River scholar, Professor Chang Xiang. Find a new ultra high temperature ceramic coating that has excellent oxidation resistance, and resistance to ablation. During the research, the material systems screened, from the initial silica carbide to strontium carbide (and then titanium carbide), zirconium carbonate, zirconium boreide, tantalum carbide and other hundreds of high temperature materials, involved almost all existing ultra-high-temperature ceramics and composites. It has taken 15 years to achieve the breakthrough of developing new ablation-resistant coatings in 3000 degC ultra high temperature environment.
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