Since its discovery
two-dimensional nanomaterials have been used in a variety of nano biomedical applications especially in anti-tumor therapy such as inhibiting cancer growth malignant migration multidrug resistance. Black phosphorus (BP) with two-dimensional lamellar structure not only has the characteristics of efficient photothermal conversion high photon singlet oxygen quantum yield but also has the large surface area of two-dimensional materials which can effectively load functional molecules for drug delivery biological imaging so that black phosphorus can be effectively applied to a variety of advanced anti-tumor therapies. Yu Xuefeng of Shenzhen Institute of advanced technology Chinese Academy of Sciences Qu Guangbo of ecological environment research center Chinese Academy of Sciences etc. summarized the application of black phosphorus in photothermal therapy (PTT) photodynamic therapy (PDT) chemotherapy (RT) active phosphorus therapy (BPT) drug delivery tumor treatment based on the anti-tumor research work of black phosphorus nanosheets (BPS) black phosphorus quantum dots (bpqds) in recent years The application of the integration of diagnosis treatment.
black phosphorus have good photothermal conversion efficiency which can increase the local temperature of the tumor by 30 degrees in a short time effectively use photothermal therapy to kill tumor cells. At the same time the excellent light excitation properties of black phosphorus make it have excellent application in photodynamic therapy. By using the good absorption conversion of black phosphorus to X-ray the X-ray can be converted into 1O2 to kill tumor. Combining the advantages of high light energy of X-ray photodynamic therapy of black phosphorus it can produce a large number of killer reactive oxygen species in tumor cells achieve the purpose of effective killing tumor cells. The two-dimensional structure of black phosphorus drug loading rate is also very high the drug loading rate can reach 98%. At the same time the photo thermal conversion ability of black phosphorus allows black phosphorus to degrade release in the near-infrared controlled high thermal environment which can achieve a controllable biodegradable drug delivery mode. If the black phosphorus is carried with fluorescent molecules or magnetic resonance imaging reagents the accurate imaging in the process of tumor treatment can be realized the function of tumor diagnosis treatment integration can be realized. However because black phosphorus itself is easy to degrade in the air or body environment some methods must be used to improve the stability of black phosphorus before using black phosphorus for the above treatment methods such as modifying some small molecules carrying metal particles using PLGA or polydopamine for surface coating so as to avoid degradation in the process of use affect the treatment effect. Yu Xuefeng's research team found that the degradation of black phosphorus material is selective in normal cells tumor cells. Due to the high metabolic activity rapid rate of tumor cells black phosphorus is more easily enriched in tumor cells. Reactive oxygen species produced by black phosphorus degradation promote tumor cells to produce inflammation cell cycle inhibition further induce apoptosis. The ability of black phosphorus to selectively kill tumor cells has been given a new name by Yu Xuefeng's team: biological therapy (BPT). Active phosphorus therapy is a kind of therapy which is produced by the degradation of black phosphorus which is different from other two-dimensional materials. At the same time the degradation product of black phosphorus is phosphoric acid which can not only participate in biomineralization but also participate in base synthesis protein phosphorylation so on. It has certain use in the body the specific effects still need to be further studied.
this review systematically describes the application of black phosphorus in a variety of tumor treatment technologies
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