History and properties of ceramic materials
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Ceramic material refers to a kind of inorganic non-metallic material made by forming and sintering natural or synthetic compounds at high temperatures. It has the advantages of high melting point, high hardness, high wear resistance and oxidation resistance. Can be used as structural material, cutting tool material, because ceramics also has some special properties, but also as a functional material.
The development history of ceramic materials
The original ceramic is the general term for pottery and porcelain. That is, through the molding and high-temperature sintering of the molding sintering body. The traditional ceramic material mainly refers to the silicate aluminate. In the beginning, people's requirements for the selection of silicate aluminate are not high, the purity is not large, the particle size is not uniform, and the molding pressure is not high. At this time the ceramics are called traditional ceramics. Later, it developed to high purity, small particle size and uniform, high molding pressure, and the sintered body is called fine ceramics.
In the following stages, people studied the basis of the ceramic materials that make up ceramics, which brought about a great change in the concept of ceramics. The internal mechanical properties of ceramics are related to the chemical bond structure of the materials that make up ceramics. Any chemical substance that can form a strong three-dimensional network structure when forming crystals can be used as ceramic materials. These mainly include ionic compounds with relatively strong ionic bonds, elementals and compounds that can form atomic crystals, and substances that can form metallic crystals. They can all be used as ceramic materials. Secondly, fiber-reinforced composites were developed by drawing lessons from the characteristics of 3D bonding. It further broadens the range of ceramic materials. Ceramic materials have thus developed a generic term for materials that can be bonded in three dimensions.
Various properties of ceramic materials
Ceramic materials are engineering materials with the best stiffness and highest hardness, and their hardness is mostly above 1500HV. Ceramics have high compressive strength, but low tensile strength, poor plasticity and toughness.
generally have a high melting point (mostly above 2000℃) and excellent chemical stability at high temperatures; The thermal conductivity of ceramics is lower than that of metal materials, and ceramics are good heat insulation materials. At the same time, the linear expansion coefficient of ceramics is lower than that of metals, and ceramics have good dimensional stability when the temperature changes.
Most ceramics have good electrical insulation, so they are widely used in the production of various voltage (1kV~110kV) insulation devices. Ferroelectric ceramics (barium titanate BaTiO3) has a higher dielectric constant, can be used to make capacitors, ferroelectric ceramics under the action of the external electric field, but also can change shape, the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy (with the characteristics of piezoelectric materials), can be used as an amplifier, record player, ultrasonic instrument, sonar, medical spectrograph, etc.. A few ceramics also have semiconductor properties and can be used as rectifiers.
The chemical characteristics of
Ceramic materials are not easy to oxidize at high temperature and have good corrosion resistance to acid, alkali and salt.
The optical properties
Ceramic materials also have unique optical properties, can be used as solid-state laser materials, optical fiber materials, optical storage, transparent ceramics can be used for high-pressure sodium lamps, etc. Magnetic ceramics (ferrets, such as MgFe2O4, CuFe2O4, Fe3O4) have a wide range of applications in magnetic tape, disc, transformer core, large computer memory elements.
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