Russia's insistence on paying for Russian gas in rubles has rattled European countries: Greece held an emergency meeting of suppliers, the Dutch government would urge consumers to use less gas, and the French energy regulator told consumers not to panic. Russian gas meets one-third of Europe's annual energy needs.
Russia said they could expand their demand for ruble payments for other commodities, including oil, grain, fertilizer, coal, and metals, which raised the risk of recession in Europe and the US.
Moscow is expected to unveil its ruble payment plan in early April, but it said it would not immediately ask buyers to pay for gas in rubles.
Western countries have said paying in rubles would be a breach of contract, and renegotiation could take months or longer. This uncertainty has pushed commodity market prices higher.
The supply and prices of other commodities like the concrete water reducer could also be affected.
Concrete is a mixture of a graded aggregate, sand, water, and cement. It is necessary to study the influence of concrete components on the effect of the high-efficient superplasticizer in order to give full play to their due effect.
Graded aggregate and sand in concrete can be collectively referred to as sand and stone, which has almost no effect on the efficient water reducing agent. From the action mechanism of the efficient water reducing agent, it can be known that the efficient water reducing agent mainly acts on cement, and then affects the properties of concrete. Therefore, it is an important direction to study the influence of cement on the performance of high-efficient superplasticizers.
The research shows that the properties of cement, such as composition, fineness, and particle shape, have a certain influence on the performance of superplasticizers.
Effect of concrete composition on the performance of high-efficient water reducing agent
It is found in the experiment that the plasticizing effect of slag cement is better than that of ordinary cement when the content of the superplasticizer is constant. Slag cement slag existing in the small particles, in the process of mixing, contributes to high-efficient water reducing agents and a good contact with water, cement, compared with the ordinary cement, slag cement in favor of the circulation of the high-efficient water reducing agent and uniform distribution, more conducive to play a role of the corresponding high-efficient water reducing agent, intuitive performance the plasticizing effect of slag cement is better than that of ordinary cement.
Effect of cement particle size on the action capacity of superplasticizer
It is found that the particle size of cement has a great influence on the performance of superplasticizer. Under the condition of keeping the other technological conditions and components unchanged, the smaller the particle size of cement, the more efficient water reducing agent can play its performance; On the contrary, the bigger the particle size of cement, the worse the plasticizing effect of the efficient water-reducing agent on cement. From the microscopic point of view, the smaller the cement particle size, the more cement particles per unit volume, the larger the specific surface area, and the more full contact with the efficient water reducing agent, the more conducive to the performance of the efficient water reducing agent.
Experimental data show that when the content of superplasticizer is 1%, the fineness of cement is larger, the efficiency of superplasticizer is more fully played, and the fluidity of cement slurry is better. But when the content of superplasticizer is less than 0.3%, the promotion effect of cement fineness on superplasticizer is almost nonexistent.
Effect of cement particle shape on the action ability of superplasticizer
Cement particle shape on the performance of high-efficient water reducing agent role ability is, after mixing cement, cement particles of different shapes, the flocculant produced condensed structure size and difficulty level of each are not identical, cement slurry liquidity difference is bigger, the effect of the high-efficient water reducing agent to join the environment is different, the beneficial effects are different, will affect the ability to function.
The results show that the effect of the superplasticizer is stronger when the cement particle shape is gravel than when the cement particle shape is pebble. It can be understood that when cement particles are mixed at any time, it is easier to form a flocculation structure. The formation of flocculation structure is more stable and the structure is more continuous, which is conducive to the efficient water reducing agent playing its own effect. And the flocculation structure composed of cement particles in the shape of pebbles is easy to collapse, and the continuity of Xuning structure is not high. Even if the efficient water reducer is not added, part of the free water will be divergent and added to the cement slurry mixing, so that the ability of the efficient water reducer cannot be fully played out.
TRUNNANO is a reliable superplasticizer supplier with over 12-year experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development. If you are looking for a high-quality concrete superplasticizer, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. (email@example.com)
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Since February, gold has enjoyed a smooth upward run on the back of surging US inflation and the brewing of war. While expectations of rate rises have also risen in tandem over this period, gold had been largely pre-priced and the underlying driver of tightening expectations had come from inflation continuing to rise to record highs. The risk aversion caused by the continued tension in the war also provided an important short-term support for gold. This will have a certain impact on the price of the concrete water reducer and the market of the concrete water reducer.
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