The high-rise building is obviously made of concrete, so why does the whole building burn after a fire? plasticizer admixture

First, concrete soaks up and transfers warmth more quickly than dissipates warmth conveniently. When a fire takes place, it has the impact of sustaining burning, which amounts including gas to the fire. The even more it sheds, the bigger it gets. Concrete might seem gorgeous and solid, but as a matter of fact, maybe far better than adobe houses. There is no thermal insulation and heat dissipation effect like adobe blocks.

(burning concrete building)

On the various other hand, I just damaged the surface. If the steel-concrete framework of a high-rise building is white, there will certainly not be a great deal of smoke and fire if it melts. It is generally constructed from interior design materials, primarily organic materials, oil, or plastic materials., once stired up, the fire will become intense and generate a large amount of black smoke.

Second, fires in skyscrapers can thaw concrete and steel bars. Oxygen sustains combustion. Additionally, the temperature generated by the auxiliary combustion of other combustible things in the building is extremely high. Besides, it is not a fire in a rural home. In the 911 event, one building was destroyed by a plane. After the crash, it did not collapse at the time. Later on, the fire brought on by the influence burned and melted the text of reinforced concrete and ultimately collapsed.

(burning concrete building)

On the other hand, interior decor products, home appliances and furnishings are mainly flammable. If one floor burns for a long time, the temperature level will certainly pass through the flooring and fire up the top and reduced floorings. The flooring is high and gusty, with great ventilation and high oxygen material. The high-temperature warmth flow will certainly form a smog. Power, the fire has to be really strong.

Third, the foam plastic made use of for outside wall surface insulation is the wrongdoer. Foam plastics are typically made use of in Europe and the United States, so a team of specialists introduced this technology. However they clearly should have taken into consideration that a lot of foreign structures are 2- or three-story property structures, and fire defense demands are reduced. Once a fire bursts out in the building, it will trigger severe repercussions. 2- and three-story buildings are not mainstream in China, and even in backwoods, there are really few of them. To introduce technology, we must think about the existing circumstance of domestic construction. Or else, we will be finding out in Handan.

(burning concrete building)

Fourth, the focus is not on room furniture and wood items yet on the fact that paint is used in all developing decors, such as wall surface paint. Even premium wall surface coverings are textiles. Paint or fabrics are naturally flammable objects. On top of that, numerous various other decoration materials have numerous shades. The shades are also made from various types of paint. Once they run into high temperatures, they will shed also if there is no open fire.

On the various other hand, I have seen many individuals claiming that the high quality of thermal insulation products is not up to par. As a matter of fact, it is not just moisture-retaining products. The nation likewise has corresponding fire retardant requirements for timber utilized for interior decoration and furnishings of skyscrapers, but furniture manufacturing facilities and structure products manufacturing facilities will prevent this. Ordinary clients don't recognize the issue, so generally, the wood products on the marketplace are non-fire retardant products, whether they are used in high-rise buildings or otherwise.

(burning concrete building)

Fifth, ideas from firefighters to prevent troubles before they take place: Each floor must be equipped with a fire hydrant. If the location is large, you can additionally gear up numerous. If a fire happens, quickly regulate the fire to stop the fire from spreading to other floorings. If it is a residential building, each house must be geared up with a small fire hydrant. Once a fire occurs in your house, the fire can be swiftly managed within your own home. In addition, furniture, drape decoration, and so on, need to be constructed from non-combustible materials. The level of fire defense automation in high-rise buildings is fairly high. The person responsible for fire security in high-rise buildings is in location and liable, and examinations and drills remain in location. Discharges can be protected against by managing combustibles, combustion-supporting materials and fire sources.

The manufacturing procedure of concrete is a key factor impacting its fire resistance. Among them, the control of the water-cement ratio is crucial. Expensive or as well low a water-cement proportion might have negative effects on the fire resistance of concrete. On top of that, the top quality and shape of the rocks in concrete will also have an influence on its fire resistance. Utilizing hard and regular-shaped stones can boost the fire resistance of concrete.

Concerning the detection of fire resistance, there are numerous frequently utilized approaches, such as high-temperature test approach, flame test technique, thermogravimetric evaluation approach, and infrared spectroscopy technique. These techniques evaluate the fire resistance of concrete by mimicing high-temperature settings or straight observing the performance adjustments of concrete at heats.

Concrete Additive Supplier

Cabr-concrete is a supplier of foaming agents and other concrete additives, which is concrete and relative products with over 12 years experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development. It accepts payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union and Paypal. Trunnano will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea. If you are looking for high quality raw materials of plasticizer admixture, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. (

The lifespan of cement is only 50 years. Will the house collapse when the time limit is up? concrete chemicals

What regarding the Three Gorges Dam?

From ancient times to the present, concrete has played a vital function in the human building of residences and major jobs. This fabricated mixture made from natural materials such as sedimentary rock and clay is widely used because of its outstanding mechanical residential properties. Nevertheless, as time passed, a disturbing rumor started to distribute among individuals. The life span of cement is just 50 years, whereby time the structure will be crumbling and even collapse. The claim sparked public panic and elevated doubts concerning the future of first-rate jobs such as the 3 Gorges Dam. The 3 Gorges Dam, one of the biggest hydropower terminals in the world, likewise makes use of cement for irrigation. It was constructed using rigorous engineering standards and advanced modern technology.

Concrete's life expectancy is just 50 years. Will your house be in danger already? What regarding the 3 Gorges Dam constructed with concrete?

(concrete construction)

1. The trick of concrete stamina

Every person have to have listened to the saying, "Cement has a lifespan of 50 years". However, this declaration is not entirely exact, and the life span of concrete is not determined right here. Truth life expectancy of a structure is additionally impacted by several elements. The supposed 50-year life of cement originates from the reality that the chemical bonding pressure created throughout the solidification process of concrete is time-limited.

When concrete and concrete are blended, the calcium and silicic acid particles in the cement dissolve in the water, forming a coarse calcium silicate crystal structure. This framework continues to link to create chemical bonds, securing moisture and triggering the concrete to gradually establish and solidify. At some point, its strength will certainly even surpass that of some steel products.

But this reinforcing procedure is not infinite. Generally, after half a century or so, these chemical bonds will progressively age and lose their glue force, leading to a decrease in concrete strength. Yet that doesn't imply that structures will certainly fall down immediately in 50 years. Actually, the main factors that figure out a structure's service life lie in architectural design, building top quality, material option, and post-maintenance.

As an example, the popular Sydney Concert hall was integrated in the 1960s. Nonetheless, as a result of proper upkeep and outstanding style and building and construction, it is still standing today. On the various other hand, if the design is sensible, the building and construction is surface, and the monitoring is smooth, it will be difficult for the building to be used for a long period of time, even if the chemical bonding force is still there. It can be seen that cement stamina is only one-factor impacting life and is by no means decisive.

(concrete construction)

The current layout life span of metropolitan real estate in China is usually half a century. But this is not established by concrete life. Rather, it is based on various considerations such as calamity avoidance and decrease, resource recycling, and so on. After 50 years doesn't suggest your home needs to be destroyed. As long as it undergoes professional examination, support and fixing to ensure that it fulfills the pertinent load-bearing and seismic needs, it can continue to be utilized. Even the new service life will certainly exceed the initial design life.

In fact, the service life of modern outstanding structures usually exceeds half a century. As an example, the Empire State Building in New york city, built in the 1930s, was carefully created, utilizing high-quality materials and clinically built. The Empire State Building is still standing and has actually remained in usage for more than 80 years. The vital factors that identify the life of a structure include structural design, building innovation, developing product selection, daily maintenance, etc.

Excellent developers will fully think about and predict the life span of the building at the start of the strategy and make use of premium materials. The use of advanced anti-seismic, anti-seepage, energy-saving and various other innovations can expand its life span to 100 years and even much longer. Although concrete has a specific chemical bonding time frame, it does not suggest that the structure is "scrapped." As long as it is very carefully designed and built from the get go of building and construction and attention is paid to subsequent repair and maintenance. A lot of modern-day buildings can remain to be made use of securely for years after half a century and remain to serve the city.

(concrete construction)

2. Construction and special considerations of the 3 Gorges Dam of the Century Task

For large-scale water conservancy projects, the conversation concerning the service life of cement is much more worthwhile of consideration. Take the 3 Gorges Dam, the world's most majestic hydropower terminal. It lugs multiple jobs such as flood control, power generation, and shipping and is a vital national critical job.

Chinese designers placed in many efforts during the layout and building of the 3 Gorges Dam. Let the dam have an ultra-long style life of greater than 100 years. As the globe's most enthusiastic hydropower job, the building and construction procedure of the Three Gorges Dam has brought in much focus and has actually gathered the initiatives and wisdom of many Chinese people.

From the preliminary idea put forward by Sunlight Yat-sen in the 1920s to the vigorous promo by the older generation of revolutionaries, such as Chairman Mao and Premier Zhou, after the founding of New China. After years of duplicated presentations and difficult preparations, the Three Gorges Job ultimately started building and construction in the 1990s. As a large water conservancy task with numerous functions. The Three Gorges Dam shoulders essential responsibilities such as flood control, power generation, and shipping and is known as the century-old dream of the Chinese country. During the design and construction procedure, Chinese designers stuck to the policy of "energetic prep work and full reliability" and invested numerous efforts.

(concrete construction)

On May 1, 1998, the temporary ship lock of the Three Gorges Task, the initially thorough job built in the Yangtze River 3 Gorges Job, was formally opened to navigation, noting the start of this world engineering titan. In the following years, the 3 Gorges Job overcame globe issues one after another and continued to set building documents. In 1999, the Three Gorges Project set a world document for month-to-month and yearly concrete pouring volumes. In 2003, the third phase of the RCC cofferdam job once again broke 5 world documents.

The year 2003 was of terrific value to the 3 Gorges Task. In this year, the project attained the established goals of the second stage of power generation, navigation, and water storage space. This year, the 3 Gorges Dam together experienced vital web links such as the 2nd closure of the Yangtze River, the approval of the second stage of the dam, and the first water impoundment. By the end of that year, the Three Gorges Task had completed the majority of the earthwork excavation, backfilling, and concrete putting, and the entire left financial institution dam reached a dam crest elevation of 185 meters. At the exact same time, the 3 Gorges resettlement work is proceeding steadily, and the tank location has handled a totally new look.

In 2006, the last concrete of the appropriate financial institution dam was gathered location, and the entire 3 Gorges Dam was capped, 10 months in advance of routine. In 2008, the Three Gorges began its first experimental water storage space. In August 2009, the last approval check of the third phase project was effectively passed, marking that the total project was basically finished according to the preliminary style.

(concrete construction)

The wonderful Three Gorges Task not just set lots of world documents in design innovation but also established a brand-new engineering building administration mechanism - the "Three Gorges Version." Efficiently managed the task high quality, progression and expense, significantly boosting the management level. Therefore, the Three Gorges Dam is not built exclusively with cement yet with concrete and steel as the major products. With clinical and extensive calculations, progressed building modern technology and material option, and strict quality assurance, the 3 Gorges Dam has been made certain to have an ultra-long style life of 100 years.

At the exact same time, the Three Gorges Dam is additionally equipped with a great deal of innovative monitoring equipment to conduct 24-hour dynamic tracking of the dam body. She has developed a full operation and maintenance strategy. It can be stated that the Three Gorges Dam has actually done sufficient research throughout the building and construction phase to remove numerous prospective threats as high as feasible and lay a solid structure for its future safe operation. Nonetheless, we can not disregard some unpredictable threats concealed in nature, such as quakes, floods, and other disastrous climate.

For that reason, during the subsequent procedure period of the 3 Gorges Dam, an expert team is still called for to continually keep track of different technical signs and formulate emergency plans in a timely way to stop issues prior to they take place. Its lifespan and safety are completely guaranteed as long as we maintain awe of nature and continue preserving it. This water conservancy titan will surely be able to serve future generations for a century and even much longer.

3. Ecological factors that can not be ignored are normally the most significant examination

You should understand that the 3 Gorges Dam is not simply created of concrete. Its main product is enhanced concrete. With scientific and extensive calculations, progressed construction modern technology and optimized material ratio. From the start of its design, the 3 Gorges Dam had a higher safety and security get variable than similar projects.

At the exact same time, the Three Gorges is also furnished with a lot of innovative surveillance devices. Carry out 24-hour dynamic monitoring of the dam body. A full operation and maintenance plan has actually been developed to secure its long-term secure procedure from lots of facets. Although the Three Gorges Dam was carefully built, we should acknowledge the power of nature.

(concrete construction)

Although reinforced concrete is hard, a specific level of chemical weathering and physical erosion will still occur if it is soaked in water for a long time. And also natural catastrophes such as earthquakes and floods, which may bring uncertain impacts to this large job. As a result, for a large project like the 3 Gorges, it is important to accomplish different analyses and avoidances throughout the building and construction phase.

However in the subsequent operation and upkeep procedure. It is a lot more essential to have an expert team to continually keep track of numerous safety and security signs and create emergency plans in a timely manner to stop problems prior to they occur. At the exact same time, we need to additionally attach fantastic importance to the possible risks that climate change and ecological troubles may bring and properly reinforce the defense of this century project.

Nevertheless, the Three Gorges Dam is not just pertaining to the nationwide economic situation and people's resources such as flooding control, power generation, and shipping, however it is likewise an important turning point in the great restoration of the Chinese country. We need to not allow any type of blunders to harm this dam, which has the hard work of many home builders. Only by paying complete interest to various feasible danger elements and taking prompt and reliable feedback steps. Only then can the Three Gorges Dam really hold up against the long-lasting examination of nature and continue to serve the country and individuals.


Cabr-concrete is a supplier of foaming agents and other concrete additives, which is concrete and relative products with over 12 years experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development. It accepts payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union and Paypal. Trunnano will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea. If you are looking for high quality concrete chemicals, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. (

Application of foam concrete and animal protein foaming agent cellular lightweight concrete block

Applications of foam concrete

Because of its excellent attributes, foam concrete is extensively used in energy-saving wall surface products and has actually additionally been made use of in other facets. Today, the main applications of foam concrete in my country are cast-in-place foam concrete insulation layers for roofing systems, foam concrete face blocks, foam concrete, lightweight wall panels, and foam concrete payment structures. Nevertheless, making full use of the good attributes of foam concrete can continuously increase its application areas in building jobs, speed up job development, and improve project high quality, as adheres to:

1. It will certainly change foam plastic and end up being the biggest thermal insulation material in building insulation.

Foam concrete is affordable and has conveniently offered resources. It can be swiftly cast in position and made right into different products. At the very same time, it has fire resistance, sound insulation, earthquake resistance, and weather condition resistance. It is the very best choice to replace foam plastics. Appropriate products.

2. Foam concrete cast-in-place wall surface

The almost all of structure insulation is the exterior wall, and the almost all of structure sound insulation is the interior wall surface. Foam concrete can be used for cast-in-place outside wall surfaces to attain self-insulation and self-absorption. It has benefits in both exterior and interior wall applications.

(foaming concrete)

3. Foam concrete outside wall insulation board

Foam concrete exterior wall surface insulation board describes an insulation board fixed on the outside wall surface by pasting or dry-hanging modern technology. Given that this sort of insulation board has been effectively made use of in Sichuan, Gansu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, and other locations, it is ready to change the foamed polystyrene board for outside wall insulation slim smudging system or exterior wall internal insulation thin smudging system.

4. Foam concrete exterior wall surface self-insulating wall surface panels

This type of wall panel consists of foam concrete composite wall panels with an encountering layer or safety layer on one side and foam concrete sandwich wall surface panels with a facing layer or safety layer on both sides. This kind of wall panel can realize self-insulation of the exterior wall surface. It does not call for added insulation therapy after setup and has outstanding fire security, durability, and audio insulation properties.

5. Foam concrete incorporated housing

Integrated housing is an international advancement fad, and foam concrete self-insulating integrated housing is an advancement hotspot. Nowadays, many residential companies are concentrating on creating this sort of self-insulated prefabricated homes.


6. Foam concrete blocks, ceramsite blocks, and autoclaved blocks

Foam concrete blocks have actually always been the first crucial product that all parties in China like. Currently, domestic business have turned to the research and development of ceramsite foam concrete blocks and autoclaved foam concrete obstructs. These 2 sorts of building blocks are the direction of development. Many foreign business use autoclaving. The previous Soviet Union made use of the all-natural treating procedure in the 1930s. Due to reduced stamina, poor frost resistance, and large drying out shrinkage, it altered to the autoclaving process in the 1940s. Ceramsite foam concrete blocks are a technology in our country with advanced technology and should be strongly created.

There are greater than 20 features of foam concrete that have actually been uncovered up until now, and a great deal of its applications are still in civil applications. Among them, one of the most appealing one in the future will certainly be its usage in structure sound absorption and insulation. The writer anticipates that it will certainly end up being the brand-new sound-absorbing product with the most advancement capacity. In addition, it has wide application leads in the fields of fire-resistant insulation, filtration, impermeability and waterproofing, and light-weight ornamental products. As the numerous functions of foam concrete are uncovered, its application as a practical material will be incredibly distinctive.

The application of pet protein foaming agents in foam concrete

In the preparation process of foam concrete, a pet protein frothing agent is combined with water and cationic surfactant and lathered via a frothing representative maker or high-speed mixer. These foams are after that infused into a concrete slurry and stirred to prepare a foamed cement slurry. The advantage of this prep work technique is that the cast-in-place concrete it creates is not just lightweight, high-strength, and fire-resistant however additionally does not need autoclaved curing and can be formed by casting in place, which has considerable energy-saving results.

The application of animal protein lathering representatives plays a crucial duty in boosting the efficiency of foam concrete. First, it helps raise the volume of concrete and minimize its density, therefore attaining a light-weight impact. Second of all, making use of frothing agents can improve the thermal insulation efficiency of concrete and improve the energy performance of structures. Additionally, animal healthy protein lathering agents can likewise boost the strength and longevity of concrete and extend the service life of buildings.

(animal protein foaming agent)

Nonetheless, the application of pet protein lathering representatives likewise calls for attention to some problems. For example, different types of pet protein frothing agents may have various effects on the performance of concrete, so it is necessary to choose the proper lathering representative according to the certain application situation. In addition, the amount of foaming agent additionally requires to be strictly regulated. Too much or too little may influence the quality and performance of the concrete.


TRUNNANO is a provider of animal prorein foaming agent with over 12 years experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology growth. It accepts repayment through Charge card, T/T, West Union and Paypal. Trunnano will ship the goods to clients overseas via FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea. If you are looking for high-quality spherical silica powder, please do not hesitate to call us and send a query.



TRUNNANO is a supplier of cellular lightweight concrete block with over 12 years experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development. It accepts payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union and Paypal. Trunnano will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea. If you are looking for high-quality spherical silica powder, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry.

Somerset House's concrete spiral staircase stuns the world

As early as the 15th century, Somerset House was originally a huge Tudor palace. By the 18th century, it had come to be the head office of several of the most crucial companies in Britain at that time, such as the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, the Royal Society, and the British Antiquities Culture, to name a few.

waterproof agent 

The refurbishment of the west wing of Somerset House is part of the overall refurbishment program and is being undertaken by the Somerset House Trust. One of the tasks in this part was to create an arts center and to release the upper floors for offices and conferences, which required a new entrance hall and an 18-meter-high staircase connecting the five floors.

The collision of history and contemporary times became the core of the architect's design of this staircase. Due to space limitations, the staircase adopts the form of a spiral. The around 3.7-meter-wide spiral steps are constructed from white ultra-high-performance concrete and spiral to an elevation of 5 floors.

Unlike ordinary staircases supported by walls, this spiral staircase is built around a grid-like lightweight stainless steel core. Engineers could pull off such a whimsical structure because the steps are made of ultra-high-performance concrete, which is harder, lighter and more stable than regular concrete.

waterproof agent 

One of the important admixtures in concrete - waterproofing agent

It is a concrete admixture that can reduce the permeability of concrete under hydrostatic pressure. It can significantly improve concrete's impermeability and waterproofing function, with an impermeability grade of up to P25 or above. It also has the effects of retarding setting, early strength, water reduction, and crack resistance and can improve the workability of freshly mixed mortar.

A brand-new sophisticated waterproofing product is a waterproofing representative, also known as Waterproofing Significance, Leakage Blocking King, and Leak Obstructing Spirit. It is divided right into two types: organic and inorganic. It has a lengthy waterproof life, broad application array, straightforward construction, low cost, safety, and environmental protection. A high-grade fatty acid mortar waterproofing agent is one of them.

waterproof agent 


TRUNNANO( is a supplier of waterproof agent and other concrete additives, which is concrete and relative products with over 12 years experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development. It accepts payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union and Paypal. Trunnano will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea. If you are looking for high quality waterproof agent, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. (


Properties and Application of Hafnium Carbide

Hafnium carbide (HfC), is a chemical compound with a distinct character. It has many uses.

1. Hafnium Carbide: Its Properties

Hafnium carburide is a grayish powder that belongs in the metal carbide category. It has high melting points, good hardness and high thermal stability.

Physical property

Hafnium carburide crystals have a face-centered cubical structure and a lattice coefficient of 0.488nm. It is a hard material with a melting temperature of 3410 degrees Celsius.

Chemical property

Hafnium carburide is chemically stable, and it is not soluble in water or acid-base solutions. It is not easily affected by high temperatures. This material is stable at high temperatures. Hafnium carburide has a high radiation resistance, and is therefore suitable for use in nuclear reactors and particle acceleraters.

2. Hafnium Carbide Application

Hafnium carbide is used widely in many industries due to its high melting points, high hardness as well as good thermal and chemical properties.

Electronic field

Hafnium carburide is widely used in electronic fields, and it's a key component of electronic glue. Hafnium carburide can be used to increase the conductivity and adherent of electronic paste. Hafnium can be used to improve the reliability of electronic devices by using it as a sealant.

Catalytic field

Hafnium carburide is a great catalyst for many chemical reactions. One of the most common uses is in auto exhaust treatment, which reduces harmful gas emissions. Hafnium carburide is used as an hydrogenation catalyst and denitrification catalyst, among other things.

The optical field

Hafnium carbide is a transparent material that can be used for optical components and fibers. It can enhance the durability and transmission of optical components, and reduce light losses. Hafnium carbide can be used for key components such as lasers, optoelectronics and optical devices.

Ceramic field

Hafnium carbide can be used to improve the density and hardness of ceramic materials. It can be used to produce high-performance materials, like high-temperature and structural ceramics. Hafnium carbide can be used to grind and coat materials.


RBOSCHCO, a global chemical material manufacturer and supplier with more than 12 years of experience, is known for its high-quality Nanomaterials. The company export to many countries, such as USA, Canada, Europe, UAE, South Africa, Tanzania,Kenya,Egypt,Nigeria,Cameroon,Uganda,Turkey,Mexico,Azerbaijan,Belgium,Cyprus,Czech Republic, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Dubai, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia,Germany, France, Italy, Portugal etc. KMPASS, a market leader in the nanotechnology industry, dominates this sector. Our expert team offers solutions to increase the efficiency of different industries, create value and overcome various challenges. You can send an email if you're looking for Hafnium carburide to:

Application Fields of Gallium Nitride

The wide-gap semiconductor material GaN is widely used due to its excellent electrical, optical and physical properties.

1.Semiconductor light

Gallium Nitride is widely used in semiconductor lighting. The high transparency, reflectivity, luminescence and high brightness of gallium nitride material make it ideal for high-performance, LED lamps. LED lamps offer a higher level of luminous efficiency than fluorescent and incandescent bulbs, as well as a longer life span. This makes them suited for use in many fields, including indoor and exterior lighting, displays, automobile lighting, etc.

In semiconductor lighting materials such as gallium nitride are used primarily as substrates for the LED chips. LED chips, the main components of LED lighting, are directly responsible for the overall performance. They determine the LED light's luminous efficacy and service life. Gallium Nitride is an excellent substrate material because it has high thermal conductivity. It also has high chemical stability and stability. It improves the LED chip's luminous stability and efficiency, as well as reducing manufacturing costs.

2.High-temperature electronic devices

Gallium Nitride is also widely used for high-temperature electronics devices. Gallium nitride, which has high electron saturation rates and high breakdown electric fields, can be used for electronic devices that work in high-temperature environments.

Aerospace is a harsh field and it's important to have electronic devices that work reliably in high temperature environments. Gallium nitride as a semiconductor high-temperature material is used to make electronic devices like transistors and field effect transistors for flight control and control of fire systems. In the area of power distribution and transmission, high-temperature devices like power electronic converters and switches can also be manufactured using gallium nitride. This improves the efficiency and reliability of equipment.

3.Solar cells

Gallium nitride solar cells also receive a lot attention. High-efficiency solar panels can be produced due to its high transparence and electron saturation rate.

Silicon is the main material in most traditional solar cells. Silicon solar cells are inexpensive to manufacture, but have a narrow bandgap (about 1eV), which limits their efficiency. Gallium-nitride solar cell have a greater energy gap width (about 2.30eV), so they can absorb more sun and have a higher conversion efficiency. The manufacturing cost of gallium-nitride cells is low. They can achieve the same conversion efficiency for a lower cost.


Gallium Nitride is also widely used as a detector. They can be used to manufacture high-efficiency detectors like spectral and chemicals sensors.

Gallium Nitride can also be used as a material to make X-ray detectors that are efficient and can be applied in airports or important buildings for security checks. Gallium nitride is also used for environmental monitoring to produce detectors like gas and photochemical sensor, which detect environmental parameters, such air quality, pollutants, and other environmental parameters.

5. Other applications areas

Gallium nitride can be used for many different applications. For example, galium nitride is used to make microwave and high frequency devices such as high electronic mobility transistors and microwave monolithic combined circuits. These are used in radar, communications, and electronic countermeasures. Also, gallium nitride It can also be used for the manufacture of high-power lasers and deep ultraviolet optoelectronics.

What is Lithium stearate powder

Lithium stearate is a crystalline form of lithium.

Lithium stearate has the chemical formula LiSt. It is a white powder that is solid at room temperatures. It is highly lipophilic, and at low concentrations can produce high light transmission. This compound is soluble only slightly in water and readily in organic solvents, such as acetone and ethanol. The high melting and flashpoint of lithium stearate makes it stable and thermally safe at high temperatures. The lithium stearate also has good chemical resistance and is resistant to acids and bases, as well as oxidants, reductants and reducing agents. Lithium is less toxic than other metals, but should still be handled with care. An excessive intake of lithium can lead to diarrhoea or vomiting as well as difficulty breathing. Wearing gloves and goggles during operation is recommended because prolonged exposure to lithium can cause eye and skin irritation.

Lithium stearate:

Surfactant: Lithium Stearate Surfactant, lubricant, and other ingredients are used to make personal care products, such as shampoos, soaps, body washes, and cosmetics. It has excellent foam properties and good hydrolysis stabilty, resulting in a gentle and clean washing experience.

Lithium stearate has an important role to play in polymer syntheses. It can be used both as a donor and a participant in the formation of polymer chains. These polymers have good mechanical and chemical properties, making them ideal for plastics, rubber fibers, etc.

Lithium stearate can be used in cosmetic formulations to soften and moisturize the skin. It enhances moisturization, and makes the skin smoother. The antibacterial and antiinflammatory properties of lithium stearate can also help with skin problems.

Paints & Coatings: Lithium is stearate can be used to thicken and level paints & coatings. It helps control the flow a coating and its properties. It is resistant to weather and scratches, which makes the coating durable.

Applications of lithium stearate include drug carriers, excipients, and stabilizers. It can enhance the stability of medications and also improve their taste and solubility.

Agriculture: Lithium is a good fertilizer carrier. It can also be used to protect plants. It increases the efficiency of fertilizers and improves plant disease resistance.

Lithium stearate may be used in petrochemicals as a lubricant or release agent. As a catalyst in petroleum cracking, lithium stearate improves cracking yield and efficiency.

Lithium stearate production method :

Chemical synthesis method

Lithium stearate can be synthesized through a series chemcial reactions that combine stearate and lithium metal. In order to get the lithium metal reacting with the stearate, they are heated together in an organic solvant. After washing and drying, the pure lithium-stearate product is obtained.

Following are the steps for synthesis.

(1) Lithium metal and stearate in organic solvents, such as ethanol heated stirring to fully react.

(2) The reaction solution must be cooled in order to precipitate lithium stearate.

Filter the crystal lithium stearate and wash with water to neutral.

(4) The dried crystals will be used to make lithium stearate.

Chemical synthesis is a mature technology that offers high efficiency in production and product purity. However, organic solvents have an environmental impact and waste is generated during production.

Methode de fermentation biologique

In biological fermentation, microorganisms such as yeast are used in the medium to produce lithium. The principle behind this method is that microorganisms use their metabolic pathways to produce stearic and react with metals (such as lithium) to create lithium stearate.

These are the steps that you will need to take in order to produce your product.

The microorganisms will be inoculated onto the medium which contains precursor substances to fermentation culture.

(2) The filtrate is used to produce a solution that contains stearic acids.

Add metals (such as the lithium ions) into the solution with stearic to ensure that they fully react.

(4) The reaction mixture is separated, then washed and dried.

The benefits of biological fermentation include environmental protection, less waste discharge and a longer production process. However, the conditions for production are also higher.

Prospect Market of Lithium Stearate:

The application of lithium in personal care will continue to play a major role. It plays an important part in cosmetics, soaps, and shampoos as it is a surfactant. As people's standards of living improve and the cosmetics sector continues to expand, lithium stearate demand will gradually rise.

It is also becoming more popular to use lithium stearate for polymer synthesis. It can be used both as a donor and a participant in polymer chain formation. As polymer materials science continues to develop, the demand of lithium stearate increases.

Lithium stearate's application in agricultural, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and other fields is expanding. In the pharmaceutical sector, lithium stearate may be used as a carrier, excipient or drug stabilizer. In agriculture, the lithium stearate is used to protect plants and as a carrier for fertilizer. In petrochemicals, lithium isostearate acts as a lubricant or release agent. In these areas, the demand for lithium will increase as technology advances.

But the outlook of the lithium stearate market is not without its own challenges. In order to produce lithium stearate, it is necessary to use lithium metal. This increases the cost. Aside from that, the applications of lithium is limited, with a concentration in agriculture, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. To expand the scope of application and market demand for lithium stearate, it is important to continually develop new applications and markets.

Lithium stearate powder price :

Many factors influence the price, such as the economic activity, the sentiment of the market and the unexpected event.

You can contact us for a quotation if you're looking for the most recent lithium stearate price.

Lithium stearate powder Supplier :

Technology Co. Ltd. has been a leading global supplier of chemical materials for over 12 years.

The chemical and nanomaterials include silicon powder, graphite or nitride particles, zinc sulfide (sulfide of zinc), boron powder (3D printing powder), etc.

Contact us today to receive a quote for our high-quality Lithium Stearate Powder.

More than a hundred schools in the UK have been closed due to the risk of collapse

In the UK, more than 100 schools were closed because of the danger of collapse

In the UK, many schools use Autoclaved aerated cement (RAAC). This is a concrete material that is lighter.

In 2018, RAAC was found to be used in the roofs and buildings of a primary-school in southeast England. The material's safety hazards were raised when the roof collapsed.

BBC reported that RAAC materials were widely used from the 1950s until the mid-1990s in areas such as roof panels, and had a lifespan of around 30 years.

According to reports, the risk of building collapse is not only present in schools, but also in hospitals, police station, courts and other public structures. RAAC material has been found.

The Royal Dengate Theatre at Northampton is temporarily closed after RAAC material was found.

According to NHS, RAAC has been detected in 27 hospital building.

The NHS chief has been asked for measures to be taken to prevent collapse.

BBC reported that since 2018 the British government has warned schools to be "fully ready" in case RAAC is found within public buildings.

The Independent reported Jonathan Slater a former senior education official, who said that Sunak, Prime Minister in 2021, approved budget reductions to build schools.

Nick Gibb is a senior official at the Department of Education. He said that the Department of Education asked for PS200m annually for school maintenance. Sunak was the former chancellor of exchequer and provided just PS50m a year.

The report also states that despite Sunak having promised to renovate at least 50 schools every year, in the main reconstruction plan of the government only four schools were renovated.

The British National Audit Office chief also criticized this crisis. He claimed that the Sunak government had adopted a "plaster-method" of building maintenance.

He believes the government's underinvestment has forced schools to close, and that families are now "paying the cost".

Paul Whitman is the secretary-general of National Association of Principals. He said that the public and parents would perceive any attempt to blame individual schools on the government as a "desperate attempt by the federal government to divert its attention from their own major mistakes."

Whitman claimed that the classroom has become completely unusable. Whitman blamed the British Government for the problem. "You can't change it no matter how many distractions and diversion you use."

London Mayor Sadiq khan said that the government should be open and transparent. This will reassure parents, staff, children, and others.

BBC reported schools in the UK were pushing forward with inspections and assessments. Children who had been suspended because of school building issues will be temporarily housed, or they can learn online.

Research on valley selective circularly polarized light absorption properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide: Promoting the application of molybdenum disulfide in the field of optoelectronics

Nature Communications recently published the article "Valley selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disorder," which was jointly written by researchers Feng Ji and Professor Wang Enge from the International Center for Quantum Materials Science of Peking University and the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Semiconductor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.This research is the first to theoretically predict and experimentally confirm the valley selective circularly polarized light absorption properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide, which is of great significance for developing the new generation of electronics - valley electronics.


This study has discovered the optical rotation selectivity of valleys in materials for the first time, which is of great significance for developing the new generation of electronics - valley electronics. Previously, the biggest challenge in applying valley electronics was that valley polarization had not yet been achieved in single-layer atomic thin films, and the valley selective circularly polarized light absorption characteristics of single-layer molybdenum disulfide precisely solved this problem. The optical Hall effect of the material has built a bridge between optoelectronics and valley electronics applications in single-layer molybdenum disulfide.

The first author of this work is Cao Ting, an undergraduate student from Yuanpei College under the guidance of Professor Wang Enge and Researcher Feng Ji. The corresponding originator of this paper is Professor Feng Ji and Professor Wang Enge. Other authors include Professor Shi Junren and Professor Niu Qian from the International Center for Quantum Materials Science at Peking University. Liu Baoli and Tan Hengping, researchers from the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Semiconductor of the Academia Sinica, designed and completed experiments to verify the theory.







Due to its excellent performance, the Molybdenum disulfide is widely used in various lubrication situations for sliding, rolling, and reciprocating friction. Due to its solid lubricant properties can work in extreme environments such as high and low temperatures, high vacuum, and strong radiation, making it an important lubricating material in high-tech fields such as aerospace, nuclear energy, and petrochemicals.


Molybdenum disulfide can be used as an additive to improve the performance of certain high-temperature oil products, fuels, and hydraulic oils. It can effectively decrease the friction coefficient, reduce wear, and improve oil products' load-bearing capacity and thermal stability.

Pigments and Coatings:

As a black pigment, molybdenum disulfide is widely used in fields such as coatings, inks, and plastics. It has bright colors, pure tones, good covering and coloring power.


Electronics and Semiconductor Industry:

Molybdenum disulfide is used as a conductive and heat sink material at high temperatures in the electronics and semiconductor industries. It has marvelous thermal stability and electrical insulation performance, which can meet the requirements of high temperature, high purity, and high reliability in these industries.

Composite materials:

Molybdenum disulfide can be added as a reinforcing agent or filler to various composite materials, such as plastics, rubber, and ceramics. It can improve composite materials' mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical properties.

Chemical industry:

In the chemical industry, molybdenum disulfide can be used as a catalyst, dehydrating agent, and desulfurizer. It has marvelous chemical stability and corrosion resistance and can play an efficient role in various chemical reactions.



TRUNNANO is a supplier of molybdenum disulfide with over 12 years of experience in the manufacturing of chemical materials. It accepts payments through credit cards, T/T, Western Union transfers, and PayPal. Trunnano will ship the goods to overseas punters through FedEx, DHL, and air or sea freight. If you are looking for high-quality molybdenum disulfide, don't hesitate to contact us and send us an inquiry.

SCR Thyristor: Principles, Characteristics and Maintenance of Semiconductor Switches

A brief introduction to thyristors

A thyristor is a powerful electronic device. It is a three-terminal component composed of four layers of PNPN semiconductor materials. Its forward working voltage is equal to the reverse breakdown voltage. This is represented by the letter "K" in the circuit, which means "control." Its primary function is to convert alternating current into direct current. A controlled rectifier (SCR) is a semiconductor device with unique functions.

Thyristor mainly consists of three parts:

Substrate, gate, and emitter. The function of the substrate is to convert the input DC current into the corresponding pulsating DC, and the entrance is a multi-sub diffusion transistor (MOSFET), which forms a barrier capacitance internally by adding an electric field between the two electrodes of a PN junction. A conductive channel that generates carriers, and finally, a field-effect transistor (FET) with a metal oxide as the gate electrode. In use, the above three types of semiconductor diodes or transistors with different functions are usually combined and used as an integrated integrated circuit (IC). The first part is called the main chip or single-chip integrated circuit; the remaining two parts are called auxiliary parts or Discrete components.


Characteristics of silicon-controlled thyristor

(1) Voltage-ampere characteristics: Since the equivalent resistance between the drain and the source of the thyristor is minimal when it is turned on when the applied reverse voltage exceeds a specific value, the entire tube can be turned on quickly, and a large forward current IDI can be obtained. Therefore, It's called a fast recovery diode.

(2) Temperature characteristics: Due to thermal balance conditions, ordinary thyristors can only work within a specific temperature range. For commonly used bidirectional thyristors, the maximum allowable junction temperature is 85° when operating at the rated reverse peak current. C; for high-power bidirectional thyristors, the temperature should be limited to between 150 and 200°C.

(3) Frequency characteristics: The frequency characteristics of ordinary unidirectional thyristors, like standard bipolar transistors, also change with the change in power supply frequency. However, it should be noted that due to switching losses, some compensation measures must be taken when working at high frequencies. In addition, there are a few reverse-conducting, low-frequency, low-power swapping tubes (such as Shorell diodes, etc.) manufactured using unique processes.


Things to note when using silicon-controlled thyristors include:

1. Environmental requirements: The use environment should be free of severe vibration and impact, and the environmental medium should be free of impurities and atmosphere that corrode metal and damage insulation. At the same time, the module die operating junction temperature must be -40℃∽125℃, the ambient temperature must not be higher than 40℃, and the ambient humidity must be less than 86%.

2. Heat dissipation requirements: The module must be equipped with a radiator before use, and the selection of the radiator should comply with relevant regulations. Heat dissipation can use natural cooling, forced air cooling, or water cooling. When forced air cooling, the wind speed should be greater than six m⁄s.

3. Correct selection: For high-power thyristors, heat dissipation devices, and cooling conditions must be installed according to the manual requirements to ensure the tube temperature during operation does not exceed the junction temperature.

4. Prevent overvoltage and overheating: SCRs with a core current of more than 5A must be installed with a radiator and ensure the specified cooling conditions. To ensure good contact between the radiator and the thyristor tube, a layer of silicone oil or grease should be applied to help with good heat dissipation.

5. Current control: When selecting the rated current of the thyristor, in addition to considering the average current passing through the component, you should also pay attention to factors such as the size of the conduction angle during regular operation, heat dissipation, and ventilation conditions. At the same time, it is necessary to prevent forward overload and reverse breakdown of the thyristor control electrode.

6. Overcurrent protection: Generally, a fast fuse can be installed in the AC power supply for protection. The melting time of the fast fuse is extremely short. Generally, the rated current of the fuse is selected with 1.5 times the rated average current of the thyristor.


As an essential semiconductor device, thyristor is vital in power electronics, motor control, power supply, and other fields. However, some things need to be paid attention to when using thyristors, such as voltage and current control, heat dissipation, over-current protection, and prevention of voltage shocks. Proper use and maintenance of thyristors can ensure the regular operation of the equipment and extend its service life.




PDDN Photoelectron Technology Co., Ltd. is a high-tech enterprise focusing on the manufacturing, R&D and sales of power semiconductor devices. Since its establishment, the company has been committed to providing high-quality, high-performance semiconductor products to customers worldwide to meet the needs of the evolving power electronics industry.


It accepts payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union, and Paypal. PDDN will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by sea, or by air. If you are looking for high-quality scr thyristor, please feel free to send us inquiries and we will be here to help you.

Metal Alloy 8.92g/Cm3 High Purity Polished Copper Plate

Copper products exhibit good electrical conductivity as well as thermal conductivity. They are also ductile, resistant to corrosion, and have a high wear resistance. They are widely used by the electricity, electronics and energy industries.

Metal Alloy High Purity Copper Plate, 8.92g/cm3,
Brush, mirrors, hairline, mill, oiled, bright, shiny, sandblast.


Interior decoration: ceilings, walls, furniture, cabinets, and elevator decoraction.

Payment & Transport:

Metal alloy 8.92g/cm3 high purity polished copper plate properties

Alternative Names Copper Plate
CAS Number N/A
Compound Formula
Molecular Mass N/A
Appearance N/A
Melting Point N/A
Solubility N/A
Density 8.92g/cm3
Purity 99.95%, 99.99%, 99.995%
Size The following are examples of customized products:
Bolding Point N/A
Specific Heating N/A
Thermal Conduction N/A
Thermal Expander N/A
Young's Module N/A
Exact Count N/A
Monoisotopic Mash N/A

Health & Safety Information for Metal Alloy 8.92g/cm3 High Purity Polised Copper Plate

Safety Advisory N/A
Hazard Statements N/A
Flashing point N/A
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Declarations N/A
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany N/A

Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate

Tungsten alloy heavy plate has low thermal expansion. It is also known for its high density, high radiation absorption, and high electrical and thermal conductivity. It is used widely in the aerospace and military industries.

About Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate:
Powder metallurgy produces compact ingots from high purity tungsten. After powder metallurgy, a series further deformations are made and heat treatments are applied until the final products have been produced.

Wear resistance, low thermal expansion and high density.

Often used to produce machining tools such as lathes and dices in the aerospace, medical, and military industries.

We have a wide range of tungsten-alloy plates in different grades and sizes. Contact us for any of your needs.

Payment & Transport:

Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate Properties

Alternative Names Tungsten Alloy Plate
CAS Number N/A
Compound Formula N/A
Molecular Mass N/A
Appearance N/A
Melting Point N/A
Solubility N/A
Density 18.5g/cm3
Purity 99.95%
Size The following are examples of customized products:
Bold point N/A
Specific Heating N/A
Thermal Conduction N/A
Thermal Expander N/A
Young Modulus N/A
Exact Mass N/A
Monoisotopic Mash N/A

Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate Health & Safety Information

Safety Advisory N/A
Hazard Statements N/A
Flashing point N/A
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Declarations N/A
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany N/A

Research on valley selective circularly polarized light absorption properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide: Promoting the application of molybdenum disulfide in the field of optoelectronics

SCR Thyristor: Principles, Characteristics and Maintenance of Semiconductor Switches

High Purity Chromium Chip Chromium Sheet Chromium Flake CAS 7440-47-3,99.95%

Metal Alloy 8.92g/Cm3 High Purity Polished Copper Plate

Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate

High Purity Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 Powder CAS 1314-87-0, 99.99%

Metal Alloy 18g/cm3 High Density Tungsten Alloy Ball

High Purity Molybdenum Boride MoB2 Powder CAS 12006-99-4, 99%

High Purity Nano Hafnium Hf powder CAS 7440-58-6, 99%

Metal Alloy High Density Tungsten Alloy Rod Grind Surface Tungsten Alloy Bar

High Purity Germanium Sulfide GeS2 Powder CAS 12025-34-2, 99.99%

High Purity Chromium Diboride CrB2 Powder CAS 12007-16-8, 99%

High Purity Tungsten Silicide WSi2 Powder CAS 12039-88-2, 99%

High Purity Titanium Sulfide TiS2 Powder CAS 2039-13-3, 99.99%

High Purity 3D Printing Powder 15-5 Stainless Steel Powder

High Purity Nano Ag Silver powder cas 7440-22-4, 99%

High Purity Silicon Sulfide SiS2 Powder CAS 13759-10-9, 99.99%

High Purity Zirconium Nitride ZrN Powder CAS 25658-42-8, 99.5%

Supply Magnesium Granules Mg Granules 99.95%

High Purity 3D Printing 304 Stainless Steel Powder

Newspsp-vault is a trusted global chemical material supplier & manufacturer with over 12 years experience in providing super high quality chemicals and Nano materials such as graphite powder, boron powder , zinc sulfide , nitride powder, Calcium nitride, Ca3N2, 3D printing powder, and so on.

And our innovative, high-performance materials are widely used in all aspects of daily life, including but not limited to the automotive, electrical, electronics, information technology, petrochemical, oil, ceramics, paint, metallurgy, solar energy, and catalysis. Our main product list as following:

Metal and alloy powder: boron, nickel, silicon, copper, iron, aluminum. chrome, silver

Boride powder: magnesium boride, aluminum boride, boron nitride, boron carbide, hafnium boride;

Sulfide powder: Molybdenum sulfide, zinc sulfide, bismuth sulfide;

Oxide powder: ITO, ATO, iron oxide, titanium oxide, manganese oxide, copper oxide;about.jpg

Carbide powder: titanium carbide, manganese carbide, titanium carbonitride, hafnium carbide;

Nitride powder: Aluminum nitride, hafnium nitride, magnesium nitride, vanadium nitride;

Silicide powder: hafnium silicide, molybdenum silicide, tantalum silicide;

Hydride powder: Hafnium hydride, vanadium hydride, titanium hydride, zirconium hydride.etc.

Have any questions or needs, please feel free to contact Newspsp-vault.